Types of Cerebral Palsy are classified by which areas of the brain are affected and therefore which movement disorders occur. The following movement disorders are the most common to those affected by CP: stiff muscles (spasticity), uncontrollable movements (dyskinesia), and poor balance and coordination (ataxia). There are four main types of Cerebral Palsy categorized by these various movement disorders.
The first type of CP, and the most common, is called spastic Cerebral Palsy, which affects 80% of those diagnosed with CP. According to the CDC, “People with spastic CP have increased muscle tone. This means their muscles are stiff and, as a result, their movement can be awkward. Spastic CP is usually described by what parts of the body are affected,” (Cdc.gov). Spastic diplegia/diparesis, spastic hemiplegia/hemiparesis, and spastic quadriplegia/quadriparesis are all categorized under Spastic Cerebral Palsy.
Spastic diplegia predominantly occurs in the legs and most who are diagnosed under this category have normal movement and range in their arms. Many people who have spastic diplegia have trouble walking because their leg and hip muscles are extremely tight; and often times their will turn inward and cross at the knees. Spastic hemiplegia, on the other hand, affects only one side of a person’s body and the arm tends to be affected more heavily than the leg. Spastic quadriplegia affects all four limbs, the trunk, and the face of a person – it is the most severe form of spastic SP. Most people who have spastic quadriplegia cannot walk at all and have developmental disabilities, difficulty with their vision, and seizures.
Dyskinetic Cerebral Palsy is the second type of CP. Those who have dyskinetic CP have difficulty controlling movement of their legs, feet, arms, and hands, which results in having trouble walking and sitting down. According to the CDC, “Sometimes the face and tongue are affected and the person has a hard time sucking, swallowing, and talking. A person with dyskinetic CP has muscle tone that can change (varying from too tight to too loose),” (Cdc.gov).
The third type of Cerebral Palsy is ataxic, which correlates with balance and coordination. Those diagnosed with this type of CP usually have a hard time with quick movements, or movements that require stability. Walking can be be unsteady and they may have trouble controlling their hands if they are reaching for an object.
Last, mixed Cerebral Palsy is the fourth type of CP, and happens to those who are affected by more than one type of CP. Most commonly, spastic-dyskinetic CP occurs as a mix, resulting in an individual’s increased muscle tone and difficulty controlling movement in their hands, arms, feet, and legs.
It is important that we are all aware of these different types of Cerebral Palsy so that research can be conducted to help ease pain and aid in controlling muscle movements on an individual scale. Each human being is affected differently by their CP, and the more we can understand as a society, the more help we can offer.